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Czech

Dutch

Esperanto

From the Latin and Italian adverbial suffix -e (as in bene "well"), perhaps reinforced by the Russian adverbial -e found after a palatalized consonant.

Estonian

From Proto-Finnic *-ek and Proto-Finnic *-eh. Cognate to Finnish -e.

Finnish

From Proto-Finnic *-ek (from Proto-Uralic *-ek) and Proto-Finnic *-eh.

French

German

From Middle High German -e, from Old High German , from Proto-Germanic *-į̄.

Hungarian

  • From e (this).
  • From Proto-Finno-Ugric *-ë (interrogative particle).

Ido

Borrowed from Esperanto -e, from Latin .

Latin

Middle Dutch

From Old Dutch -i, from Proto-Germanic *-į̄.

Middle English

Old English

From West Germanic *, from Proto-Germanic *-ê, which survives otherwise only in Gothic (and possibly Old Norse).

Old French

Latin -a.

Old Irish

Romanian

From Latin -ae (first-declension ending)

Serbo-Croatian

From Proto-Slavic *-ę.

Spanish

From Latin -et, the third-person singular present active indicative ending of second conjugation verbs, and Latin -it, the third-person singular present active indicative ending of third and fourth conjugation verbs.