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From Middle English sonn, sone, sun, sune, from Old English sunu (son), from Proto-Germanic *sunuz (son), from Proto-Indo-European *suHnús (son), from Proto-Indo-European *sewH- (to bear; give birth). Cognate with Scots son (son), Saterland Frisian Suun (son), West Frisian soan (son), Dutch zoon (son), Afrikaans seun (son), Low German sone, son (son), German Sohn (son), Danish søn (son), Swedish son (son), Icelandic sonur (son), Lithuanian sūnùs (son), Russian сын (syn, son), Avestan 𐬵𐬏𐬥𐬎𐬱 (hūnuš, son), Sanskrit सूनु (sūnú, son), Ancient Greek υἱύς (huiús), υἱός (huiós, son), Albanian çun (lad, boy, son), Armenian ուստր (ustr, son), Tocharian B soy, soṃśke (son).


From Latin sonus. Compare Daco-Romanian sun.


From Proto-Turkic *soŋ (back, end). Compare Turkish son below.


From Vulgar Latin sum, from Classical Latin suum.


From Old French son, suen, suon, from Latin sonus (the current form may be remade after or influenced by sonner).


From Old Portuguese son (probably influenced by or possibly borrowed from Old Occitan son), sõo, from Latin sonus. Alternatively, regressively derived from the verb soar. Compare Portuguese som, Spanish son.


Middle English

From Old English sunne.

Middle French

From Old French son.

Northern Sami

From Proto-Samic *sonë.

Norwegian Nynorsk

From Old Norse sonr, from Proto-Germanic *sunuz, from Proto-Indo-European *suHnús.

Old French

From Vulgar Latin sum, a reduced/atonic variant of Latin suum.

Old Irish

Borrowed from Latin sonus.

Old Swedish

From Old Norse sonr, from Proto-Germanic *sunuz.


From Old English sunu (son), from Proto-Germanic *sunuz (son), from Proto-Indo-European *suHnús (son), from *sewH- (to bear, give birth).

Skolt Sami

From Proto-Samic *sonë.


From Latin sonus, probably through the intermediate of Old Occitan son (or influenced by it); alternatively, but less likely, regressively derived from the verb sonar (the more expected form would be *suen, and a sueno appeared in some Medieval texts). Compare Portuguese som.

Sranan Tongo

From English Sun (from Middle English sunne, from Old English sunne (sun; the Sun)) or Dutch zon (from Middle Dutch sonne (sun), from Old Dutch sunna), both from Proto-Germanic *sunnǭ, from Proto-Indo-European *sh₂un-, *sóh₂wl̥.


From Old Swedish son, sun, from Old Norse sonr, sunr from Proto-Germanic *sunuz, from Proto-Indo-European *suHnús. Masculine in Late Modern Swedish.


From Ottoman Turkish صوك (soŋ, end, consequence), from Proto-Turkic *soŋ (back, end, after).



From Proto-Tai *soːlᴬ (to teach). Cognate with Thai สอน (sɔ̌ɔn), Lao ສອນ (sǭn), Lü ᦉᦸᧃ (ṡoan), Tai Dam ꪎꪮꪙ, Shan သွၼ် (sǒan), Ahom 𑜏𑜨𑜃𑜫 (son).